China launched a Long March 2D carrier rocket early on Friday morning to transport an Earth-observation satellite into space, according to the China National Space Administration.
The rocket blasted off at 2:31 am at the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in northern China’s Shanxi province and soon placed the Hyperspectral Multifunctional Observation Satellite into a sun-synchronous orbit 705 kilometers above the ground, the administration said in a news release.
The satellite is equipped with scientific equipment that will be used to monitor ecology and environment, survey natural resources, and detect atmospheric elements. Data obtained by the spacecraft will support China’s efforts to respond to climate change, it said, noting the main users will be the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, the Ministry of Natural Resources and the China Meteorological Administration.
Both of the satellite and the rocket used were built by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology, a subsidiary of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp, the country’ leading space contractor.
Long March 2D is propelled by liquid propellants and has a liftoff thrust of 300 metric tons. It is capable of sending a 1.2-ton spacecraft to a sun-synchronous orbit with an altitude of 700 kilometers.
The launch marked the 453rd flight of the Long March rocket family.
Based on the hyperspectral data obtained by AHSI in the coastal areas of Dubai, the large categories of objects such as water, buildings, roads, bare soil can be accurately identified by the classification of objects, and 3-5 valid subclasses can be subdivided in each category, as well as the information of vessels far away from the sea. The classification results show that the hyperspectral integrated observation satellite can support more detailed application research on urban planning, land use, ecological environment, water quality monitoring, marine environment supervision, fishery activities supervision, etc.
The above image is a brightness temperature map obtained by WTI on February 14, 2023 of Cherry Island volcano in Japan, and the following image is a brightness temperature map at different times in this area. The brightness temperature map at different times can be used to judge the impact of volcano eruption on the surrounding area, effectively supporting the monitoring of the environment of the sea around the volcano and other related work.
Arctic waterway mornitoring
The left image is the Arctic waterway map acquired by WTI at 07:40:14 Feb. 26, 2023, and the right one is the bright temperature map of this area. The above image can accurately monitor the amount of ice fragmentation and the melting of sea ice, realize the monitoring of sea ice change all day, and provide important data for the safety of the waterway. (In the middle is the Arctic waterway, where blue indicates cold land, green and red is water; green and red indicate different temperatures, red indicates higher temperatures, melted water, and green indicates cooler ice.)
The above image is the first time that EMI has obtained ultraviolet-visible hyperspectral resolution radiation data. This load is the one with the highest spectral resolution in the ultraviolet-visible band on orbit in China. It can be used to observe ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and other pollutant gases, and basically achieve global coverage in one day.
Global Ozone mornitoring
The above figure is the first one-day global ozone column concentration distribution obtained by EMI. It clearly reveals the global distribution of ozone. It is consistent with the monitoring results of similar satellites abroad. It can strongly support the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, global climate change research and so on. (DU stands for Dobson Unit, short for DU. A unit used to measure the column density of ozone in the atmosphere. 1 DU refers to the amount of ozone contained in a 0.01mm thick pure ozone layer at standard temperatures and pressures)
Regional NO2 mornitoring
This is the first time that EMI has obtained high-value distributions of local nitrogen dioxide in the Middle East, South Asia, North America, and South America. Distribution of high values of nitrogen dioxide caused by anthropogenic sources in the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf regions in the Middle East and South Asia clearly shows significant high values in India, Ribul, Bangladesh Daka, Baghdad, Iraq, Tehran, Cairo, Egypt, Saudi Riyadh, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, etc. High values in North America include Mexico City, Monterrey in Mexico, Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, Denver in the United States, and Edmonton in Canada. Chile fires are the main high-value spots for South American landscapes.
The above image shows the monitoring results of sulfur dioxide columns from the Ecuador and Columbia volcanoes obtained by EMI.
Water environment monitoring
The above image is a brightness temperature map of temperature drainage near a factory in India obtained by WTI, and the following image is a brightness temperature map at different times in the region. The following image clearly shows the range and trend of temperature rise and diffusion of temperature drainage, which can effectively support the monitoring of environment in surrounding sea areas such as power plants and nuclear power plants.
Water quality monitoring
The above image shows the colored soluble organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll a (Chl-a), suspended matter concentration (TSM) products obtained by AHSI in Dianchi Lake, Yunnan. The results show that the colored soluble organic matter concentration is high along the northeast coast of Dianchi Lake and the northern grassland sea, while the rest are at a low level. The chlorophyll a concentration in the southeast coast and the northern grassland sea of Dianchi Lake is higher, while that in the north and southwest of the lake is lower, showing a trend of increasing from west to east. The concentration of suspended matter is higher along the northeast coast and the northern grassland sea, but lower along the northwest coast and the east coast of the central part of the Dianchi Lake, which shows a trend of decreasing from the northeast to the southwest. At the same time, the water quality parameters of other small rivers and lakes except Dianchi Lake are also clearly distinguishable. The preliminary application results show that AHSI has the ability of remote sensing inversion of colored dissolved organic matter concentration, Lake chlorophyll a concentration and suspended matter concentration.
The above image shows the colored soluble organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll a (Chl-a), suspended matter concentration (TSM) products obtained by AHSI in the Taihu Lake area. The results show that the concentration of colored soluble organic matter is higher along the coast of Taihu Lake, and gradually decreases from north to south. The concentration of chlorophyll a in the West Bank of Taihu Lake and the north side of Xishan Island in the central part of Taihu Lake are both high, showing a decreasing trend from west to east. The concentration of suspended particulate matter is higher along the southwest coast of Taihu Lake, but lower from the middle to the east, showing a decreasing trend from the southwest to the northeast. At the same time, the water quality parameters of other small rivers and lakes except Taihu Lake are also clearly distinguishable. The preliminary application results show that AHSI has the ability of remote sensing inversion of colored dissolved organic matter concentration, Lake chlorophyll a concentration and suspended matter concentration.
Point source methane emission monitoring
Based on AHSI load data, remote sensing monitoring of methane point source emissions was carried out in Libya and the United States using an optimized methane column concentration inversion algorithm. Fig. (a) is the result of methane leakage monitoring from Dor Marada oil well in Libya and Fig.(b) is the result of methane leakage monitoring from DCP Midstream oil well in Permian basin in the United States. Clear methane plumes were successfully monitored in the area. The above monitoring results show that the AHSI payload of the hyperspectral integrated observation satellite has high sensitivity and detection accuracy, and can accurately monitor the methane emission point sources over a wide range of space-based, providing strong technical support for the realization of the “carbon peak, carbon neutralization” strategic goal in China.
Natural Resource Monitoring
Based on AHSI data, two kinds of mineral information, sericite and chlorite, were extracted from Dulan area of Qinghai. The MNF transformation of hyperspectral satellite data enhances the recognition of lithologic and structural geologic information. By comparing the image and library spectra of chlorite, it is found that the main absorption features near 2330 nm and the secondary absorption features near 2255 nm are clearly distinguishable. The main absorption characteristics near 2215 nm and the secondary absorption characteristics near 2350 nm of Sericite minerals are detailed, which are in good agreement with the spectra of chlorite and sericite in the spectral library. The use of this hyperspectral data for enhanced identification of geological information (lithology, structure) and extraction of mineral types can provide the basis for subsequent hyperspectral mineral mapping and resource and energy exploration.
China National Space Administration (CNSA) has released some hyperspectral comprehensive observation satellite image results
Including ecological environment monitoring, atmospheric environment monitoring, water environment monitoring, and natural resources monitoring. It includes 7 visible short wave infrared hyperspectral camera image products, 4 atmospheric trace gas differential absorption spectrometer image products, and 3 wide thermal infrared imager image products.
Precisely reflect the spectral characteristics of ground objects, distinguish the subtle spectral differences of different ground objects, and accurately extract various types of water bodies, vegetation, crops, etc.